Tropical agroforestry and ecosystem services: trade-offs analysis for better design strategies
Agroforestry and tree cover on productive landscapes deliver key provisioning and regulating ecosystem services that improve farmers’ livelihoods and aid conservation efforts (Tscharntke et al., 2011; Harvey et al., 2014; Zomer et al., 2014). Agroforestry covers a significant amount of land across several climatic and geographic conditions resulting in a wide range of ecosystem services which requires careful attention to
enhance their extent and duration overtime. It is estimated that agroforestry covers between 200 and 357 million hectares in Latin America, including 14–26 million hectares in Central America and 88–315 million hectares in South America (Somarriba et al., 2012). The most prominent agroforestry examples in the region are commercial silvopastoral systems, and shaded tree-crop systems involving coffee (Coffea spp) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Currently, agroforestry offers a unique opportunity to achieve the millennium development goals while curving tree cover loss and reducing pressure on remaining forest (Perfecto and Vandermeer, 2010; Kragt and Robertson, 2014).